Mughal Documents

Mughal Documents 1526-1627 by S.A.I. Tirrmizi

Mr. S.A.I. Tirmizi former director of Archeological Survey of India has compiled the Mughal documents translated Persian Farmans (imperial orders) into English (1526-1627) which was published by Manohar publications, Ansari Road, Darya Ganj, New Delhi in which there are couple of Mughal documents which establishes the fact, that Mujavirs (Khadims) of Khwaja Sb. have also received Nazars, Jagirs and Farmans (imperial orders) from Mughal emperors as offerings.

5 Aban, Ilahi 9/24 Ramazan 1023 A.H./18 October 1614 A.D. (Pg.94)

Farman of Jahangir to the officials states that the Nazurat of the Rauza of Khwaja Moinuddin Chishty which were deposited in the qindil were divided into shares as follows: children of Masud, 1½ share; children of Bahlol, 1 share; children of Ibrahim, I share. (All these three brothers were distinguished sons of Hazrat Khwaja Fakhruddin Gardezi (R.A.) to whom Khadims trace their lineage.)

Rajab 992 A.H./June-July 1584 A.D. (Pg. 62)

Agreement regarding division of Nazurat among the Khadims of the Shrine of Khwaja Moinuddin Chishty. It is agreed that the Nazurat should be divided among the Mujawirs according to past practice as follows. (Pg. 33)

The Nazurat or offerings made to the Shrine were deposited in the qindil and were divided among the Mujawirs (172). (Pg. 33)

C 1000 A.H./1591-92 A.D. (Pg. 68)

However, in the closing decade of the fifteenth century Shaikh Jamali arrived at Dargah in company of his Pirzadah Shaikh Nasiruddin, (son of Shaikh Samauddin Kamboh) and observed that numberless Hindus regularly pay homage at the Shrine of the great Chishti Saint, and as a mark of respect offer all Nazar to the Mujaviran. Shaikh Jamali was very much impressed by the Saint like qualities of 80 years old Maulana Masud, the Khadim and direct decendant of Maulana Fakhruddin Guedezi and referred to him as Mujavir-e-Azim-ul-Qadr (greatly respected Mujavir). Jamali had also consulted the Malfuzat of the Khwaja Sahib compiled by Maulana Ahmad which were with Maulana Masud. Khwaja Khanun Gawaliari had also developed close links with the famous Syed Matha (Khadim) during his stay at Ajmer.

Source: Siyar-ul-Arifin (Ms) f. 12a (printed text, Lahore 1976), p. 19. The earliest Ms of Siyar-ul-Arifin clearly states that Masud was the descendant of Maulana Fakhruddin Gurdezi the Khadim of Khwaja Ajmeri.

Between 1562-79, Akbar visited the Shrine almost every year, on annual Urs, on the birth of a Prince, or a success in campaign, either against Rajputs or Afghans, he was always found paying thanks giving pilgrimage at the Shrine and lavishly pouring cash and kind as Nazar on Khadims. The young Emperor firmly believed that all his successes were due to spiritual blessings of Khwaja Moinuddin Chishty whom he considered his Pir.

Source: Akbar Namah, op. cit., Vol. II, p. 237. For details also see, Akbar and the Ajmer Shrine, op. cit.

During his visit in 1572, Akbar left one of his pregnant Queens at the residence of Shaikh Daniyal, another distinguished Khadim. Later when a son was born to this Queen, he was named Daniyal after the name of this great Khadim.

Nearly all the contemporary well known historians of the period had praised the virtues and Saintship of Shaikh Daniyal, on whose forehead light of purity was always visible. Akbar converted his residence into a palace which is still in the possession of the descendants of Shaikh Daniyal, known as Mahal Valas among the Khadims.

Source: Asanid-us-Sanadid, pp. 3-5, 79-83; 117-18; Muntakhab-ut-Tawarikh, (tr.) op. cit., Vol. II, pp 143-44; Akbar Namah, op. cit., Vol. II, p. 542; Ain-I-Akbari, op. cit., Vol. I, p.422.

It is important to note that Akbar’s relations with the Khadims of Dargah did certainly influence his religious perception and policy. Details of the Emperor’s lengthy discussions and sittings with Khadims have been furnished by many contemporary writers, where matters about religion, philosophy, Sufism, specially of Chishty order, were the themes of talk and discussions. Here, it appears that the Khadims to a certain degree were successful in impressing upon the Mughal Emperor, the need of the persuasion and propagation of Chishty ideals of humanism, piety, catholicity, tolerance, and brotherhood, in the pluralistic society of India.

For example, it appears that after each of his earlier visits to the Dargah, Akbar abolished the practice of enslavement of war prisoners (1562), remitted the pilgrimage tax (1563), and finally abolished Jaziya in 156, after paying homage to the Shrine of Shaikh Niazamuddin at Delhi.

It has also been claimed that Akbar had received the Wazifa (litany) of ‘Ya-Hadi’ Ya-Moin, which he frequently used in the wars, from the Khadims of the Shrine. He was the first and foremost Emperor in the history of Muslim rule in India (of course followed by his son, Jahangir) who had inscribed ‘Ya-Moin’ on his famous gold coins Adal-Gatka, Lal-I-Jalali Gird, and even introduced a new coin called Moini. He even had dispatched several Haj caravans from Ajmer in a company of these Khadims. He once brought Raja Man Singh with him in the Dargah, for getting the blessings of the Saints, for success of the campaign against Rana of Kokanada and Kombhelner. Here it will be interesting to note that Mahrana Pratap too had prayed and invoked the blessings of the great Saint, for his own success, against Mughals as has been mentioned by Dayal Das in Rana Raso. Stipends to the students belonging to Khadims community were also sanctioned by the officials of Akbar.

Source: For details see: Akbar and the Ajmer Shrine, op. cit., Asnanid-us-Sanadid, op.cit., pp. 14-19, 22-23, 25-26.

During the stay at Ajmer once Jahangir fell seriously ill and made a vow at Dargah that after the recovery from illness, he would perforate his ears, wear ear-rings as a mark of slavery to Khwaja. On regaining health, he fulfilled his vow by perforating his ears, wear ear rings as a mark of slavery to Khwaja. Many of his nobles also followed the Emperor and wore ear-rings. He also offered a golden railing around the Mazar, and issued a gold coin bearing the novel inscription of Ya-Moin on it. He also presented a Degh (cauldron) and cooked the food and distributed it with his own hands, performed the ritual of candle lighting and distributed cash and kind rewards to many recluses and also offered Nazar to the Khadims.

Source: Tuzuk-I-Jahangiri, Vol. I (tr.) op. cit., pp. 267-68, 256, 279, 297, 329 W. Foster (ed.), early travels in India (1583-1619), London, 1927, pp. 171, 280. Purchas and his Pilgrimages (op. cit.), P. 491, Ajmer through inscriptions, p. 18, M.K. Hussain: Jam-e-Sahat coin of Jahangir, the journal of Numismatic society of India, Vol. XLI, pt. II (Varanasi 1997), pp. 103-15.